Tag Archives: phytosanitary

Olivar en Jaén

Quality and quantity, the goals to reach growing olive groves

Profitability, both in the short and long term, is determined by the balance given by natural products specialized in vegetative growth and pest control

Quantity and quality in the olive production are not conflicting parameters. Advances in natural technology for agriculture by companies with a major background in the R&D field just like SEIPASA have led to specialized products available to the farmer that imply a boost to the health and vigor of plants – either by activating their metabolism or by protecting them from pests and diseases that curb and hurt them- and result both in the harvest’s weight and final quality.

They are completely natural inputs that not only offer more energy to the plant, but also maintain the natural balance of the agricultural ecosystem, regenerating and revitalizing the environment. Thus, present profitability is improved while tuning the crop while, and perhaps this is more important, future profitability is also improved thanks to the favorable conditions in which the olive trees and land is left.

What are these natural tools?

Starting with the rhizosphere, olive trees need a base that promotes the activity of beneficial soil microorganisms, boosting a barrier against pathogens at the same time it stimulates root development. These benefits can be obtained with reference products such as Seiland, a root protector that strengthens the plant’s defense system and promotes the generation of lateral roots and root hairs, and nutrient assimilation.

Without neglecting the importance of balanced irrigation and fertilization, there are crucial stages in the olive tree production cycle that require special care if qualitative and quantitative targets want to be achieved. Especially on sprouting, flowering and fruit setting. They are moments of high energy demand; times when the action of Kynetic4 becomes pillar to ensure success.

Its bio-stimulating effect not only favors a good development of all these processes, which will brand the year’s harvest and part of the next’s, but also prepares olive trees to cope with immunity with abiotic stress such as frost. It should be kept in mind that olive tree buds, unlike almost all woody plants, are not protected by scales and hence are more sensitive to cold.

Nutrition and flowering in olive groves

Olive inflorescence occurs over last year’s buds, and rarely on the new ones. It depends on what the tree has experienced over the previous year in terms of water supply in the soil, nutrients or temperature, but this can also be boosted by the enhancing effects of Kynetic4..

This next-generation bio-stimulant also has an important role in the fruit setting process, since it increases pollen germination and thus optimizes the setting.

Fighting pests and diseases naturally

Olive mountain

Achieving optimal production parameters also means knowing how to fight pests and diseases while maintaining crop health intact. In this sense, it is vital to follow guidelines of integrated pest control, maximizing natural resources for biodiversity, the environment and your own future profitability.

That is why is necessary to maintain and enhance the pests’ natural enemies jointly with other physical and cultural methods and, especially, with the use of natural treatments compatible with biological control. SEIPASA constant research in this area has led to obtain clever formulations that are highly effective against insect pests and other harmful agents.

That’s the case with Pirecris, which features a quick action on different types of populations, including olive fly, olive moth (prays) and glifodes. These are three of the pests that most damage are inflicting over olive groves in Jaén, that require effective fighting tools, capable of avoiding resistance and sensitivity in olive trees.

Pirecris’ natural effectiveness not only answers to the pyrethrum extract’s active ingredient: its activity is enhanced by the botanical-based, green co-formulants, unlike many pyrethrin-based based references that include synthetic compounds. This is a unique, perfectly balanced combination which not only protects olive trees from pest attacks, but also guarantees the protection of this crop.

Producers can also use natural formulations alternative to copper such as Glucosei, which implies a great support to prevent fungi proliferation.

In short, optimal management of olive crops derives from the application of biological, cultural and biotechnical measures, backed with specialized treatments that are as effective as respectful of the agricultural system that receives and animates them. It is a path open to long-term profitability.

Sandía virus venas amarillas

Cucumber vein yellowing virus CVYV

This disease, transmitted by the white fly, Bemisia Tabaci, affects cucurbitaceae such as the cucumber, courgette, melon or watermelon

The disease known as “Cucumber vein yellowing virus” (CVYV) is transmitted through the adult individuals of the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and affects cucurbitaceae species such as the cucumber, courgette, melon or water melon.

It was located for the first time in 1960 in cucurbitaceae cultivated in Israel. It appears to be related to the sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV). It is wide-spread in Western Mediterranean countries, and since 2001 it affects the fields of Andalusia.

Symptoms of the vein yellowing virus

In cucumber and melos:
Yellowing of the veins is observed in the leaves of the shoot, a characteristic whence the virus derives its name, although, depending on the moment of infection, this yellowing can also occur in a generalised manner in the entire plant.  The plant development is also less.

In cucumber fruit, a light green, dark green, mosaic occurs, whilst no symptoms occur in melon fruit.

Virus venas amarillas en sandíaIt seems that this virus, associated with the cucurbit yellow stunting disorder  virus (CYSDV), produces a synergism that boosts the symptoms of both virus

In courgette:
The symptoms observed on the leaves are a slight yellowing of the veins.

In watermelon: In leaves where it has been detected, the chlorosis symptoms are very mild and may go unnoticed. At times, they are even symptom-free. A strong internal necrosis has been observed in the fruit, as well as splitting of this fruit, which is attributed to the virus, although whether this is a unique and/or direct consequence has not been entirely demonstrated.

Transmission of the vein yellowing disease

The virus is transmitted by the vector insect, Bemisia Tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). The adults of this whitefly can be observed on the backs of the leaves like small insects that measure somewhat more than 1 millimetre long with a yellowish body and white wings due to the secretion of waxes that covers them.

A virus acquisition period of at least 30 minutes is needed, and at least 15 minutes feeding on the plant is required to inoculate it. The insect retains the virus for 6 hours and has a latent period of 75 minutes. Low transmission effectiveness by the Bemisia Tabaci has been indicated, and at least 15 to 20 insects are required per plant for its transmission.

Methods to combat Bemisia Tabaci

The management methods are based mainly on controlling the Bemisia Tabaci vector by means of prevention and culture practices (use of meshes, elimination of plant waste, use of resistant varieties, use of certified virus-free material, …), as well as plant health and integrated management practices.

The Regional Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery of the Junta of Andalusia, advises a series of specific measures:

  • Placement of double mesh on the edges and ridges of the greenhouses and placement of double door or mesh at the entrance.
  • When the climate conditions (especially humidity) permit adequate ventilation of the greenhouse, placement of anti-trip meshes.
  • Use of yellow chromotropic traps.
  • Surveillance and control of the white fly in early cultivation stages and seed beds.
  • Set up the measures relating to cleaning plant remains and weeds in the greenhouse and surrounding areas. Pull out and immediately eliminate plants affected by the virus during cultivation.
  • Not abandoning the crops and carrying out treatment against Bemisia Tabaci before pulling them out is compulsory as a management method, as well as correctly eliminating the plant remains.
  • Leave a rest period of at least one month between one cucurbitaceae crop and the next one to break the cycle of whitefly.

To control the whitefly in the framework of the integrated management of pests, natural specialised plant health products that have proved to be very effective in eradicating Bemisia Tabaci can be resorted to, as is the case of Pirecris.

Source: Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca. Andalucía.

Curva degradación residuos cero

How to achieve zero residues crops in conventional agriculture

Towards Zero Residues in traditional agriculture

Any conventional agricultural production -thus not restricted to organic agriculture- can get fruit, vegetables and grains free of chemical residues, Zero Residues. How? We will explain.

To be clear about this process, we should talk about the so-called degradation curves or waste disposal curves. Which are the graphical representation of the evolution over time of residues present in plants treated with pesticides.

The application of pesticides generates a deposit (amount of the substance that remains in the plant immediately after treatment), which depends on the product used, its formulation, the presence of adjuvants, of the application, the vegetable’s morphology, of the weight-surface ratio of and of weather conditions at the time of application.

Since the initial deposit, occurs a progressive degradation of the pesticide by mechanical, physical and chemical agents, derived from climatic factors (temperature, wind, rain, humidity, sunshine) and the nature of the plant and the pesticide.

This process may be foreseen according to models that set the rate of heat loss, setting curves that let us learn theoretical concentrations for a particular application time.

teoretica curveThat is why curves of authorized pesticides for each crop allow us to know how the residues content changes over time in the fruit and, thus, determines the “safety periods” (minimum period of time that must elapse between treatment and harvesting the product, or the entry of cattle in the treated plot).

Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs)

The danger of a residue is determined by the toxicity of its active material, the characteristics of the formulation, the potential metabolites generated by the degradation process itself, its bioaccumulation, the amount of residues in the collection or consumption, and the degree of exposition.

In order to protect public health against the toxicity of chemical residues in agricultural products, they are regulated by the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) rules.

This is the maximum amount of chemical residues that plant products may contain when they reach the market; that is, the allowed concentration acceptable for long term human or  animal consumption.

In conventional agriculture, following the best practices implies crops that do not exceed those Maximum Residue Limits if the legally established criteria (dose, timing, adjustment of product-cultivation…) is respected.

Residues degradation to zero

Degradation curve phytosanitariesThe curve process is as follows: There is a brief latency period, after which a progressive decrease in the residues concentration (dissipation area) is reported. This comes to a point where degradation occurs more slowly (persistence zone) until reaching the harvest period, in which the parameters of the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) must be met.

Also, it must be kept in mind that in many cases several applications of a pesticide are necessary at different times of the production cycle, which causes the degradation curve to move to the right. This way, the closer the harvesting time, the more residues will reach the final production.

But, in addition to this method, the practice leads to focus on another highly effective and even more natural formulation: planning each crop following the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy with the added goal of a ‘zero residues’ crop.

Thus, it is established as the main performance in pest control prioritization mechanisms of natural regulation as the use of biological control and the use of plant protection products compatible with biological control organisms (OCB) are like SEIPASA biopesticides, of so that free crop residues is guaranteed from the beginning.

Degradation curve, Zero Residues

SEIPASA biopesticides degradation curve, highly specialized in removing different pests, has dissipative and persistence periods with more convergence towards zero, which guarantees a residues-free harvest.

This ensures fruits, vegetables and cereals without toxic remains reach the population tables, not even legally permitted levels.

Value-added harvest

All of this adds value to the agricultural product, both in quality (nutritional, sensory and visual) and nutritional health, which more and more consumers ask for, along with large retail chains. Moreover, major retail outlets are no longer satisfied only with respect to Maximum Residue Limits, they ask for much lower levels.

The great effectiveness of SEIPASA biopesticides can keep pests at bay while protecting the crop in a more natural, sustainable and healthy way, but also avoids the harmful effects caused by chemical pesticides such as some plants’ sensitivity to pests or diseases or some pests’ resistance to pesticides, which make them not only useless but also contaminants.

It must be kept in mind, as discussed before, that synthetic products can be replaced entirely by SEIPASA’s natural treatments from the cycle start, achieving the same effectiveness. SEIPASA biopesticides are a major element in Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

For more information on the most appropriate biopesticide for each crop and production cycle, and o application times in order to achieve a ‘zero residues’ harvest:  consulta@seipasa.com